Cicero - Selected Works  (Penguin)

The Mind Map

cicero1.png

Life

Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman orator and statesman, was born at Arpinium of a wealthy local family. He was taken to Rome for his education with the idea of a public career and by 70 BC he had established himself as the leading barrister in Rome. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.0)

Very few other men have both stood at the center of world events and written so well and fully about the part they played. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.7)

For all his passion for public life, he is said to have expressed the hope that his friends would describe him not as an orator but as a philosopher. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.12)

One, at the peak period of his production (45-44 BC) was insomnia; ‘ the amount I write’, he says, ‘ is beyond belief, because I work in the night as well since I cannot sleep: Moreover at that same time he was working to distract his thoughts from the recent loss of his beloved daughter - and, in addition, to compensate for his enforced exclusion from politics. ‘ Could I have kept alive’, he says, ‘ if I had not lived with my books?” But as in other authors, the personal and the idealistic motives were interfered with and reinforced each other. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.16)

These manifold talents him one of the most persuasive public speakers who have ever lived; this is conclusively proved by the successes that he achieved. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.20)

When, after the failure of a further marriage, the general and write Aulus Hirtius to deal with a wife and philosophy at the same time. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.65)

Enroll me among such heroes, I beg you! Though I am afraid that one thing may not be to your liking. If I had been among their number I should have freed our country not only from autocrat but from the autocracy. For if, as you assert, I had been the author of the work, believe me, I should not have been satisfied to finish only one act: I should have completed the play. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.117)

This work (How to live), which exercised so unparalleled an influence from the early Fathers until the nineteenth century, is a manual of right behavior and civics, ostensibly addressed to the writer’s son. Marcus who was studying in Athens. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.157)

‘ I am timid in attempting to guard against dangers, but not in facing them’. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.10)

Technique

Cicero was the greatest of the Roman orators, possessing a wide range of techniques and an exceptional command of the Latin tongue. He followed the common practice of publishing his speeches. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p. 0)

True to the ancient belief that politics and ethics were part of a single philosophy whole, Cicero’s morality was by no means limited to the relationship between governments and subjects. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.11)

He enthusiastically accepted the belief of the Greek Stoics that high moral standards, the determination to live up to them, and the emotional self-restraint needed to do so. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.12)

‘ One should know’, he tells his son, ‘ without philosophy teachers, but one should live civilizer’- and this untranslated word means: like a citizen, like an educated Roman, like a civilized man living as a member of his community. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.14)

Particularly the guidance to living designed by the Stoics other later Greeks schools. That, and his public life, were his principal contributions to the human cooperation in which he believed. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.15)

Cicero’s combination of native oratorical and intellectual gifts with a very thorough education endowed him with every weapon that pleader in a Roman law court, Senate, or Assembly could need. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.20)

These Republicans (of French Revolution) were mostly young people who, brought up on readings of Cicero at school, were fired by them with the passion for freedom. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.101)

That is to say, was never unoccupied, and often the only company he needed was his own. Other men are enervated by leisure and seclusion, but he derived stimulation from them. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.159)

Here then, Marcus my son is your father’s present to you. Personally, I consider it a substantial one! But that will depend on the use you make of it. I should like you to think of these three parts of my work as three welcome guests among your notes of Critippus lectures. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.201)

Letters

The letters: they give an astonishingly frank and authentic picture of their writer’s character’. I saw a complete picture of you in your letter; says his brother Quintos, and Cicero’s own comment is: ‘ a letter does not blush’. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.58)

To his wife

How unhappy it makes me that you with your courage, loyalty, honesty, and kindness should have suffered all these miseries because of me! And that our darling daughter Tullia has been plunged into such wretchedness pleasures! And what can I say about our son, Marcus, who from the very moment when he began to be aware of things has known the bitterest griefs and sorrows? (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.65)

Husband and wife discussions 

‘Pomona, you take the woman, and I will have the boys’(...) But her reply (which we heard) was this: ‘ So I am evidently a stranger in my own house!’ - I imagine merely because status had gone on ahead to see our meal. Quintius comment to me was: ‘You see? That is what I have to put up witch every day!’ (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.72)

To sum up, my brother seemed to me thoroughly good-tempered and your sister thoroughly acrimonious. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.72

What he prayed for

Two things only I pray for. One, that in dying I may leave the Roman people free - the immortal gods could great me no great gift. My other prayer is this: that no man’s fortunes may fail to correspond with his services to our country. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.153)

Why he thinks we are here

As I believe, the reason why the immortal gods implanted souls in human beings was to provide the earth with guardians who should reflect their contemplation of the divine order in the orderly discipline of their own lives. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.244)

On what he thinks about death 

True, certain insignificance philosophers hold that I shall feel nothing after death. If so, then at least I need not fear that after their own death they will be able to mock my conviction! And if we are not going to be immortal, well, even so, it is still acceptable for a man to come to his end at limits of all things, has marked out life’s limits among them. When life’s last act, old age, has become wearisome, when we have had enough, the time has come to go. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.247)

His relation with failure 

His extraordinary talent was matched by equally conspicuous faults and weaknesses, including snobbery, vanity, extravagance, vacillation, and a too emotional and rancorous judgment of political problems - not to mention a tendency to make enemies by injudicious jokes. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.9)

In the recurring dilemmas of the hideously disturbed national situation, he was obligated to accept many humiliating failures and compromises. Matched as in single duel, as de Quincey described him, ‘ with a strong temptation to error growing out of his public position. Cicero repeatedly changed direction, laid himself open to many charges of insincerity, and not infrequently despaired. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p9)

History

Cezar fights Pompey. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.79)

Cicero wanted peace from Caesar to Pompey, Caesar said “ I don’t care’. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.83)

Popey leave Caesar win 

To murder the citizens of Rome - that was the intention which emerged; to ravage Italy, revolution! At such a time, no one could fail to hear the call to defend the common cause - especially as the Senate and Roman people, in those days, possessed a leader. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.110)

The Public relation

In his presentation of this view, Cicero stands about halfway between the agnostic who asserts that man can be truly good without wholehearted adherence to a clearly defined religion, and the Christian who denies it. He is concerned first and foremost with men, he throws moral responsibility upon man’s shoulders, and he believes that man can make decisions without detailed interference by gods or Providence. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.12)

Self-value and human relation 

First, all human beings, however humble, must count for something, must have some inherent value themselves secondly, this spark of divinity supplies an unbreakable bond of kinship between one man and another, irrespective of state, race, or caste, in a universal Brotherhood of Man; and it is right and necessary that brother should receive decent treatment from one another. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.12)

Cicero, interpreting life as a complex of obligations to others as well as oneself, offers a splendid testimony to beliefs in human cooperation which he so enthusiastically confirmed from his reading of the Stoics, and yet tempered with his own undogmatic good sense. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.158)

If he avoids this pitfall, he will be doing his duty working for the interest of his fellow-men, and, I repeat once again, of the human community. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.169)

Belief in the gods being established by almost universal consent - which endows all men with the divine spark and makes them brother. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.13)

Law

Civic law and universal law. 

My first concern was to keep our fellow-Romans alive: by so doing, we could give ourselves time to think later on about their civic rights. Pompey, on the other hand, was preoccupied with their rights in the immediate present. Nevertheless, our disagreement was tolerable - the more So because we both concentrated on our own specific objectives. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.119)

The existence of this natural bond of community between all human beings explains why our ancestors choose to make a distinction between the civic law of the land and the universal law. The law of the land, it is true, ought to be capable of inclusion within the universal law, but they are not synonymous since the latter is more comprehensive. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.185)

Methods of combating sharp practice. 

Another result is a passionate desire for excessive wealth, for unendurable tyranny, and ultimately for the most horrible and repulsive things imaginable. The perverted intelligence of men who are animated by such feelings is competent to understand the material rewards, but not the penalties. I do not mean penalties established by such feelings are competent to understand the material rewards, but not the penalties. I do not mean penalties established by the law, for these they often escape. I mean the most terrible of all punishment: their own degradation. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.171)

Now law and philosophy have their different met those of combating sharp practice. The law attempts its conquest by forcible coercion, the philosophy by reasoning and logic, which they argue, make any employment of deception, preference of trickery out of the question. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.184)

Freedom of speech

Let us not, certainly lose our tempers: but let each man defend what he believes: judgment is free. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.14)

Authority

Whereas the ultimate authority should be not themselves but certain unchangeable moral principles that they are incompetent to annul or amend. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p. 7)

Bad authority

Do you never understand the significance of this: that brave men have now learned to appreciate the noble achievement, the wonderful benefaction, the glorious renown, of killing a tyrant? When men could not endure Caesar, will they endure you? Mark my words, this time there will be crowds competing to the deed. They will not wait for a suitable opportunity - they will be too impatient. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.152)

A guard is no protection, I can tell you! The protection you need is not weapons, but the affection and goodwill of your fellow citizen. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.150)

Lawyer

Pretending one thing and doing another a masterly reply, characteristic of a lawyer so expert in farming definitions. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.181)

Case against Veres 

Introduction 

He realizes that my preparation and documentation of this trial have been through: and that I can consequently pin him down, in your hearing and before the eyes of the world, as a thief and a criminal. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.39)

Getting the crowd on his side 

This great crowd that has gathered here today to listen has not, in my opinion, come to learn from me what happened. It has come to go over, with my assistance, the event of which it is already well aware. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.42)

When the Sicilians had prevailed upon me to take on this cause (...) Later, however, after I had set to work on the brief, I formed a more ambitious purpose: namely, to demonstrate to the people of Rome how I feel for my country. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.50)

Grief 

Not one single god, if only Verres defected a good work of art or a valuable antique, did he leave in the possession of the Sicilians. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.42)

Sexual assault 

I do not want, by describing them, to worsen the calamities of the people who have not been permitted to save their children and their wives from Verre’s sexual passion. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.42)

Corruption 

My warning pronouncement. It is addressed to all who habitually place, accept, or promise bribes; who act as go-betweens or intermediaries in attempting to corrupt judges. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.51)

While the order of knights controlled the courts, for nearly fifty years not one single knight who was a judge incurred the slightest suspicion of allowing his verdict to be influenced by a bribe. Yet after the courts had been transferred to the Senate - after you had escaped, every one of you, from the Roman people’s control- Quintus Calidius, on being found guilty, was able to remark that no ex-predator could honorably be convicted for less than thee million sesterces! (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.51)

Verres: I shall consider myself to be doing nicely if I can earmark one year’s profit for my own use, the second year’s for my protectors and counsel, and the whole of the third years - the richest and most lucrative - for the judges who try me. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.52)

A greedy man’s lust for the gain they could satisfy, but they cannot afford a guilty man’s acquittal. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.53)

Will a court of Senators convict a guilty man if he is rich? (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.54)

Revealing the strategy of the opposition 

Your purpose is to postpone your speech until after the two games; mine is to reach the adjournment before the first of these games begin. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.49)

Opposition character 

The defendant has only two characteristics: his appalling record, and his exceptional wealth. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.54)

And if you choose to read or have read to you, the histories of foreign countries, you will find that the greatest states were overturned by young people and restores by the old. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.221)

Putting the judges on the lights ²¹

²¹ I am convinced, gentlemen, that this trial will bring you either great popularity or great discredit. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.56)

Against the Opposition defense 

My attack on Verres must concentrate on the evidence of records and witnesses, and the letters and other testimonies of individual and public bodies. (...) If I suppose that your opposition to me in this trail would consist of a speech refuting my charges against your client, then I too would devote all my energies to a comprehensive statement of those charges. Instead, however, you have chosen to fight me by methods more compatible with your client's critical predicament than with your own character. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.49)

Character by age 

Every stage in life has its own characteristic: boys are feeble, youths in their prime are aggressive, middle-aged men are dignified, old people are matured. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.226)

On old age 

And the thought of this ripeness so greatly attracts me that as I approach death I feel like a man nearing harbor after a long voyage; I seem to be catching sight of land. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.241)

So old age, you see, far from being sluggish and feeble, is really very likely, and perpetually active, and still busy with pursuits of earlier years. Some people never stop learning, however old they are. (...) In my later years, I have learned to read Greek. (...) Socrates learned to play that favorite instrument of the ancients, the lyre; and when I hear of the progress he made I wish I could do the same; but at any rate, have worked hard at literature. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.6223)(Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.223)

The same applies to the pleasure of sex: young people who look on them at close quarters, may well find them mare exciting, but old people to obtain as much satisfaction as they need by viewing them from far. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.232)

Next, we come to the third allegation against old age. This was its difference in sensual pleasure. But if age really frees us from youth’s most dangerous failing, then we are receiving a most blessed gift. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.228)

I actually fell grateful to old age, because this has increased my enthusiasm for conversation but eliminated the desire for food and drink. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.231)

The particular harvest of old age, I repeat, is its abundant recollection of blessing acquired in earlier years. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.241)

Why is old age is seen as unhappy?

Why this regarded as an unhappy life. First, because it takes us away from active work secondly because it weakens the body. Thirdly, because it derives us from piratically all physical pleasure. And fourthly, because it is not fear of death. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.219)

 

Old Mans Good Habits

Memory practice 

And to keep my memory in training I adopt the practice of the Pythagoreans and, every evening, run over in my mind all that I have said and heard and done during the day. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.227)

The joys of farming 

The cultivation of the soil is one of the activities in which age does not impede up to his very last days. Tradition records, for example, that Marcus Corvinus worked on his farm at an extremely advanced age, indeed until he was a hundred. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.237)

Now I come to the pleasure of farming. These give me an unbelievable amount of enjoyment. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.233)

I could go on at length about the numerous attractions of the farmer's life, but I realize I have spoken rather too long already. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.235)

How to live a good and constant life

The most luxuriantly fertile of all is that of our moral obligations - since, if we clearly understand these, we have mastered the rules for leading a good and consistent life. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.160)

There is great satisfaction in the knowledge of a life well spent and the memory of many things well done. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.217)

Dealing with misfortune 

Every man should bear his own misfortunes rather than remedy them by damaging someone else. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.169)

A reflection on right and wrong 

For an oath is made, with God as your witness, you must keep. This is not a question of the anger of the gods, which does not exist, but of right dealing and good faith. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.201)

Panaetius: 1- Is a thing morally right or wrong? 2 - Is it advantageous or disadvantageous? 3 - if apparent right and apparent advantage clash, what is to be the basis for our choice between then? (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.160)

About the painting of Venus of Cos. No painter, said Rutilius, had ever been able to complete that part of the picture which Apelles had left unfinished since the beauty of Venu’s face made the adequate representation of the rest of her a hopeless task. Similarly, the quality of what Panaetius had written was so outstanding that nobody was to supply his omissions. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.162)

How to deal with evil 

However, as the philosopher instruct, one must not only choose the least among evils, one must also extract from them any good that they may contain. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.160)

The misconception of a not trained mind 

Judgments of poems, paintings, and much else reveal the same fault: unformed readers and viewers admire and praise things that do not deserve to be praised. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.164)

What they need is expert instruction, and then they quickly revise their opinions. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.164)

Right with the wrong desirability 

Those, on the other hand, whose yardstick of desirability is pleasure or absence of pain say that right is only worth cultivating as a source of advantage. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.163)

A place among apparent advantages may certainly be claimed for sensual pleasures. Yet with right they have nothing in common. To the pleasure of such a kind, one concession only can be made - perhaps they add a certain spice to life, But they certainly provide no real advantage in life. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.201)

One has had enough of life, in my opinion, when one has had enough of all its occupations. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.243)

The duality inside a troubled mind 

Everyone hopes to attain an advanced age; yet when it comes they all complain! So foolishly inconsistent and perverse can people be. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.215)

If a man controls himself and avoids bad temper and churlishness, then he can endure being old. But if he is irritable and churlish, then any and every period of his life will seem to him tiresome. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.216)

On why someone does wrong to another 

A man who wrongs another for his own benefit can be explained in two different ways. Either he does not see that what he is doing is unnatural, or he refuses to agree that death, destruction, pain, the loss of children, relations, and friends are less deplorable than doing wrong to another person. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.167)

Right and wrong

Right and wrong with power

Quotation from the Phonetician Woman of Euripidies. Here is the best translation I can manage, crude perhaps but intelligible: If right may ever be infringed, this can be done for the sake of kingship: in all else be god-fearing. The man who allows himself a single exception of such a  kind deserved his death! Criminality could go no further. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.190)

Power on this scale looks extremely advantageous. But loads of shame and sin weighing it down deny that this is so, and afford further proof that nothing which is not right can be of advantage. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.192)

Right according to the stoics 

I regard nature as the best guide; I follow and obey her as a divine being. Now since she has planned all the earlier division of our lives excellently, she is not likely to make a bad playwright’s mistake of skimping the last act. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.215)

Besides, the Stoics ideal is to live consistently with nature. I suppose what they mean is this: thought our lives we ought invariably to aim at the morally right course of action, and in so far as we have other aims also, we must select only those which do not clash with such courses. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.163)

As Ennius relevantly says ‘ if the wise man cannot benefit himself, his wisdom is vain ‘ That is entirely true - if Ennius and I mean something by ‘ benefit’. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.182)

The ring of Gyges by Plato  

Plato: Gyges went down into the chasm, and there he comes upon a horse made of bronze, with a door in its side. He opened the door, and found inside the body of a dead man with superhuman stature, wearing a golden ring. Gyges took off the ring and placed it upon his fingers. (...) He found that by touring the bezel of the ring inwards in the direction of the palm of his hand - he becomes invisible, though he himself continued to see perfectly: and he only becomes visible again by turning the ring back into the previous position. So he exploited the opportunities thus given him. He seduced the queen, and with her help murdered his royal master. Then he removed everyone whom he believed to stand in his way. In these crimes, he remained entirely undetected. By using the ring in this way, he quickly rose to be king of Lydia. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.172). (...) Picture the same ring in the hands of someone truly wise. He would not consider that its possession entitled him to do wrong any more than if it did not belong to him. For to act secretly is not what a good man aims at; what wants to do is act rightly. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.172)

The point of the ring and its story is this. Imagine yourself doing something in order to acquire excessive wealth or power. (...) No one would discover what you have done (...) would you do it? (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.173)

The complexity of a good action

Certain situations are prevailingly difficult to assess. Om occasion, a course of action generally regarded as wrong turns out not to be wrong after all. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.165)

There could be 10 more terrible crime than to kill someone who is not merely a fellow human being but a close friend. Yet surely someone who kills a tyrant, however, close friends the two men have been, has not committed a crime. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.165)

The ideal obligation and the apparent advantage 

There is that ideal, unlimited obligation - perfect obligation, as the Stoics put it, ‘ satisfying all the numbers’- which none but the ideally wise man can fulfill. And then there are also these other actions in which we see the working of a ‘second class’ obligation. When the latter situation arises. (...) Most people fail to understand that, in fact, the deed falls short of the ideal - their intelligence is insufficient to appreciate what is lacking. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.164)

It is mistaken, we know, to weigh what is ideally right against apparent advantage when the two things are in conflict. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.165)

Apparent advantage should equally not be weighed against this ‘ second-class’ sort of right which is cultivated by everyone who aspires to a reputation for goodness. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.165)

Unlike good men, they judge everything by profit and gains, which seem to them just as valuable as what is right. Panaetius observed that people often doubtingly weigh those two things against one another. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.165)

What is morally wrong can never be advantageous, even when it enables you to make some gain that you believe to be to your advantage. The mere act of believing that some wrongful course of action constitutes an advantage is pernicious. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.177)

These, the, are some of the doubtful cases in which one side takes a moral view, and the other sited advantages by asserting that it is not only right to do what seems to be advantageous but wrong to avoid so doing. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.179)

So Pythius and everyone else whose actions believe their words are ill-intentioned, faithless, and dishonest. Nothing that such vicious people do can possibly be advantageous (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.65)

In special circumstances, then, a number of things that look right and natural may turn out not to be right after all. If the original advantage which promoted an undertaking, or agreement, or trust no longer exists, then its fulfillment may cease to be right and become wrong. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.197)

What he said was that apparent advantage could do so. But he frequently asserted that nothing can be advantageous unless right and nothing right unless it is advantageous; and it is the comments that no great plague has ever visited mankind than the attitude of mind which has regarded the two things as separable. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.170)

Even in matters affecting friends, it remains true that the apparent advantage should be disregarded in favor of the right. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.175)

I hope this rule is now completely familiar to you: what appears advantageous can only be so if no wrong action is involved - if the contrary is the case, the action cannot be advantageous after all. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.190)

Virtue 

²⁹ For the whole point of these virtues is that they reject fear, rise above all the hazards of this life, and regard nothing that can happen to a human being as unendurable. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.199)

³⁰ Obviously we all aim at our own advantage, we find that irresistibly attractive. No one can possibly work against its own interests - indeed no one can refrain from persisting them to the best of his ability. But seeing that our advantage can only be found in good repute, honor and right, priority and primacy must be accorded to these. The advantage that goes with them should be interpreted as their indispensable accompaniment rather than a glorious objective in itself. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.200)

Fine character 

The finest and noblest character prefers a life of dedication to a life of self-indulgence. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.167)

Lust will drive men to every sin and crime over the sun. Mere lust, without any impulse, is the cause of rape, adultery, and every other sexual outrage. Nature, or a good, has given human beings a mind as their outstanding possession, and this devourer gift and endorsement has no worse foe than sensuality. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.228)

Great deeds are not done by strength or speed or physique: they are the products of thought, and character, and judgment. And far from diminishing, such qualities actually increase with age. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.220)

Age will only be respected if it fights for itself, mountains its own rights avoid dependence, and asserts control over its own sphere as long as life lasts. (Cicero - Selected Works - Penguin - p.227)

.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

©2020 by Desolhar