The Universe and Earth

The Mind Map

Content:

1 Universe

1.1 Constant change

1.2 Questioning God as the maker of the universe

1.3 The universe is in numbers

1.4 It is an everlasting fire

1.5 Order

2 Earth 

2.1 It is Spherical

2.2 Creation

2.3 Sky

2.4 The End

Universe and Earth.png

1 Universe

Constantly think of the universe as a single living being, comprised of a single substance and a single soul; and how all things issue into the single perception of this being, and how it accomplishes all things through a single impulse; and how all things work together to cause all that comes to be, and how intricate and densely woven is the fabric formed by their interweaving. (Marcus Aurelius - Meditation p.31)

1.1 Constant change

Firstly, that things of themselves have no hold on the mind, but stand motionless outside it, and all disturbances arise solely from the opinions within us; and secondly, that all that you presently behold will change in no time whatever and cease to exist; and constantly reflect on how many such changes you yourself have already witnessed. “ The universe is change and life mere opinion. (Marcus Aurelius - Meditation p.24)

1.2 Questioning God as the maker of the universe

All these praise you, the creator of everything. But how do you make them? The way, God, in which you made heaven and earth was not that you made them either in heaven or on earth. Nor was it in the air or in water, for these belong to heaven and earth. Nor did you make the universe within the framework of the universe. There was nowhere for it to be made before it was brought into existence. Nor did you have any tool in your hand to make heaven and earth. How could you obtain anything you had not made as a tool for making something? What is it for something to be unless it is because you are? Therefore you spoke and they were made, and by your word you made them. (Saint Augustine - Confessions (Oxford) p.225)

1.3 The universe is in numbers

The mystery of the universe to be contained in numbers (10 Timaeus Plato)

1.4 It is an everlasting fire

Heraclitus (...), argued that the world, in spite of its apparent diversity and change, possessed a fundamental unity. ‘ Everything flows’ , according to Heraclitus, yet everything is one. He describes the universe as ‘ everliving fire’ and compares it to a river that flows ceaselessly yet is always the same. His explanation was that the world consists of opposites that are fundamentally the same. This unity is grounded in an eternal principle which he called logos (speech, or account, reasonable proportion, or even ratio). (Aristotle - On the soul Oxford int. XXi)

1.5 Order

In the universe, there is a mighty infinite and an adequate limit, a presiding cause of no mean power, which orders and arranges years and season and months, and maybe justly called wisdom and mind. (Plato Philebus p. 98)

2 Earth 

For the earth in its entirety is merely a point in space, and how very small is this corner of it in which we have our dwelling; and even here how few there will be, and of what nature, to sing your praises. (Marcus Aurelius - Meditation p.24)

2.1 It is Spherical

Its shape must necessarily be spherical (earth) (Aristotle On the Heaven's Oxford p.70)

Eclipse - the form of this line will be caused by the form of the earth’s surface, which is therefore spherical.

Indeed there are some stars seen in Egypt and in the neighborhood of Cyprus which are not seen in the northerly regions; and stars, which in the north are never beyond the range of observation, in those regions rise and set. All of which goes to show not only that the earth is circular in shape, but also that it is a sphere of no great size. (Aristotle On the Heaven's Oxford p.71)

2.2 Creation

The Lord God created light on the first day, the sun, moon, and stars on the fourth day. Where did the light shine on the first day? (Fyodor Dostoevsky - Os Irmao Karamazov (Editora 34)

2.3 Sky

In dark clouds

Hidden

The stars can shed

No light. 

(Boethius - The Consolation of Philosophy (Penguin) p.21)

2.4 The End

And when the time comes for the world to be destroyed so that it may assume a new life, these things by their own strength will bring destruction on themselves, and stars will clash with stars, and all that now shines in an orderly arrangement will burn in a single fire, as all matter is consumed in flames. (Seneca - Dialogues and Essays Oxford p.83)