Socrates & Plato

Intro:

Socrates

1 Life

2 Teachers

3 Looks

4 Family

5 Fun facts

Plato

1 Life

2 Teachers

3 Family

4 Fun facts

Content:

1 Origin

2 Only motion

3 Numerical order

4 God creator

5 Elements

6 Categorisation

7 Creation of your destiny

8a Animals tamed

8b Free animals

1 Human

1.1 Soul

1.1a Tragedy and comedy share the same words

1.1b Virtue Divine

1.2 Preservation

1.2a Memory

1.2b Desire

1.2c Pleasure

1.3 Block of wax

1.3a Consciousness

1.3a 1 Mind & true opinion

1.3a 2 To acquire knowledge (birds head)

1.3a 3 Falshood in mind

1.3a 4 Existence

1.3a 5 To perfect intelligence

1.3a 6 Consciousness preserved by memory

1.3a 7 He who knows nothing knows all

1.3a 8 The evil ignorance of a philosopher

1.3a 9 Two kinds of persuasion

1.3a 10 Two kinds of knowledge

1.3a 11 The reflection before action

1.3a 12 How to be courageous

1.3a 13 Evil

1.3b Moral ideas

1.3b 1 Tears are the origin of love and hate

1.4 Cave Analogy

1.4 a The Cave Analogy Fragment

1.4 b The use of the analogy

1.4 c The process of understanding

2 Humans are not self-sufficient

2 City

2.1 The ruler should be a philosopher

2.2 Political Individual

2.2 a Principles

2.3 What governs?

2.4 Law

2.5 Marriage

2.6 Love

2.7 Kids

2.8 Money

2.9 Single Functions

2.10 Habitants 5040

2.11 Poetry

Books used:

A History of Greek Philosophy, Volume III: The Fifth- Century Enlightenment Part 2: Socrates

A History of Greek Philosophy, Volume IV: Plato: The Man and His Dialogues: Earlier Period

 

Plato: The Apology (Cambridge), 

Plato: Crito

Plato: Laches, 

Plato: Charmides, 

Plato: Euthyphro, 

Plato: Hippias Minor and Major, 

Plato: Protagoras, 

Plato: Gorgias, 

Plato: The Republic (Penguin), 

Plato: Symposium (Penguin), 

Plato: Phaedrus (Penguin), 

Plato Euthydemus, 

Plato: Menexenus, 

Plato: Cratylus, 

Plato: Critias, 

Plato: Philebus, 

Plato: Laws (Penguin), 

Plato: Parmenides,

Plato: Theatetus, 

Plato: Sophist, 

Plato: Statesman, 

Plato: Timaeus , 

Plato: Eryxias , 

Plato: Alcibiades I, 

Plato: Alcebides II

The Mind Map

Socrates

 

1 Life 

Lived in Periclean Athens and fought in the Peloponesian war in his forties (The Fifth Century Enlightenment, Part 2: Socrates W. K. C. Guthrie p.6) 

Killed for disbelief in the city’s gods and corrupting the young (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.79)

2 Teachers

Aspias taught Socrates the art of rhetoric. (Plato Menexenus p. 5)

She sometimes got angry with Socrates when he forgot the funeral oration. 

Diotima taught the ways of love and Dialectical conversation. (Plato Symposium p. 37)

3 Looks

Snub nose and projecting eyes - not beautiful Socrates (Plato Theatetus p. 1363)

4 Family

Father from Socrates Phaeanarete. (Plato Theatetus p. 1459)

Socrates half brother - Patrocles (father Chaeredemus) (Plato Euthydemus p. 665)

5 Fun facts 

Socrates could drink any amount of wine without getting drunk (The Fifth Century Enlightenment, Part 2: Socrates W. K. C. Guthrie p.20) 

Whenever Socrates engage in a discussion, he will never stop asking questions (Especially with someone attractive) (Plato Symposium p. 28)

Socrates drinks and never gets drunk. (Plato Symposium p. 52)

Socrates walked on bare feet on ice. (Plato Symposium p. 60)

Socrates one time stood a whole day thinking of a problem, when he saw the sun appearing, he greeted the sun with a prayer and went away. (Plato Symposium p. 60)

During the battle after which the generals awarded me the prize for bravery (because of social status), it was Socrates, no one else, who rescued me. (Plato Symposium p. 60)

Sometimes Socrates goes off and stands still wherever he happens to be. (Plato Symposium p. 6)

Plato

1 Life

424 BCE Birth of Plato. (Plato The Republic p.Vii)

Went to Megara with some of Socrates’s pupils (Athens was not secured anymore) (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.13)

Plato dies in 347. (Plato The Republic p.Viii)

2 Teachers

Contact with Socrates  for the first time in his twenties (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.12)

Socrates died, Plato 28 years old. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.12)

Under the new democratic government, Socrates- Plato’s mentor for up to ten years previously. (Plato The Republic p.Viii)

3 Family

Had two elder brothers - Glaucon and Ademantos one sister Potone (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.10)

Father Plutarch (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.11)151515

The second marriage of his mother (Perictone) (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.11)

Son of Ariston. (Plato The Republic p.Vii)

4 Fun facts 

Plato had a great interest in gymnastics (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.12)

Founded the Plato Academy (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.19)

The intention of Plato Academy was to form Political people (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.23)

Books

1 Origin

The world is a living creature, and having originally received intelligence from its author and creator. (...) Man run naked, there was no form of government, in the open air, they had no bed, but lay on soft couches of grass, such as the life of man in the days of Cronos. (Plato The Statesman p. 920)

2 Only motion

¹ In this perfect world having neither eyes nor ears, for there was nothing without him which he could see or hear: he had no need to carry food to his mouth, nor was their air for him to breath; he did not require hands, for there were nothing of which he could take hold, nor feet. All that he did was done rationally in and by himself, and he moved in a circle turning within himself, which is the most intellectual of motions; but the other six motions were wanting to him; wherefore the universe had no feet or legs. Having intercourse with himself - the soul was made and then the body. (Plato -Timaeus p.10)

 

3 Numerical order

Are we on the way or to the first principle? (Aristotle The Nicomachean Ethics p. 6)

He resolved to have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he made this image eternal but moving according to number, while eternity itself rests in unity; and this image we call time. Because of motion, there is only “is” in time. (Plato Tameus p. 30)

4 God creator

So why do we serve the gods? For what benefit for them? (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.116)

The ways of God in this world cannot be justified unless there be a future state of reward and punishments. Yet this future state of rewards and punishments is in Plato’s view not any addition of happiness or suffering imposed from without, but the permanence of the good and evil in the soul. (Plato Laws p. 87)

God contrived a general plan by which a thing of a certain nature found a certain seat and room. But the formation of qualities he left to the wills of the individuals. For every one of us is made pretty much what he is by the bent of his desires and the nature of his soul. (Plato Laws p. 236)

5 Elements

Let us divide science in general into those which are practical and those which are purely intellectual. (Plato - The Statesman p. 670)

Elements: Earth cube, fire pyramid, air octahedron, water icosahedron. (Plato Temaeus p. 18)

What makes a fire burn? The thinness of the sides, the sharpness of the angles, the small-scale of the particles, the quickness of the motion. (Plato Temaeus p. 19)

Being, space, and generation existed before heaven. Generation: Moistened by water and inflamed by fire, and receiving the forms of earth and fire, and experiencing all the affections which accompany these, presented a strange variety of appearances. Being: Full of power which were neither similar nor equally balanced, always moving and arranging particles to form the universe. (Plato Temaeus p. 69)

Forming solids with 4, 8, 120 equilateral triangles. (Plato Temaeus p. 70)

For the earth is the most immovable, and that which has the most stable bases must of necessity be of such nature. (CUBE). To water, we assign that one of the remaining forms which is the least movable, and the most movable of them to fire; and air that which is intermediate. (Plato Temaeus p. 77)

We must imagine all these to be so small that no single particle of any of the four kinds is seen by us on account of their smallness, but when many of them are collected together their aggregates are seen. (Plato Timaeus p. 78)

6 Categorisation

Categorization:

1- Infinite (pleasure)

2- Finite (measure)

3- Compound of 1 and 2 

4 - Cause of 3 mixture and generation - arts, science, and true opinion.

5- Pleasure (painless of the soul) (Plato Philebus p. 88)

In the universe, there is a mighty infinite and an adequate limit, a presiding cause of no mean power, which orders and arranges years and season and months, and maybe justly called wisdom and mind. (Plato Philebus p. 98)

7 Creation of your destiny

Myth of Er 

Lachesis assign the life they have chosen 

Clotho retirees the destiny 

Atropos attached and ended in necessity. (Plato Republic p. 370-373)

8a Animals tamed

Division of animals: Those who nature can be tamed are called mute, and those which nature cannot be tamed are called wild. Then of the land animals there are the biped and the quadruped, then biped in those which have feathers and those which have not. (Plato Statesman p. 770)

8b Free animals

Mankind is coeval with all time, and are ever following, and will ever follow, the course of time: and so they are immortal, because they leave children’s children behind them, and partake of immortality in the unity of generation. (Plato Laws p. 153)

Every animal that is born is wont to utter some cry, and this is especially the case with man, and he is also affected with the inclination to weep more than any other animal. (Plato Laws p. 180)

1 Human

1.1 Soul

In so far as human nature is capable of sharing in immortality, he must altogether be immortal (Plato Timeaeus p. 99)

The welfare of the soul is more important than that of the body (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.99)

The human soul is immortal and has been through many earthly lives and many periods of existence (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.295) 

For the souls of the many have no eye which can endure the vision of the divine. (Plato - Sophists  p. 137)

The soul was to be implanted in the bodies, which were in a perpetual flux, whence, he said, would arise, first, sensation, secondly, love, which is a mixture of pleasure and pain, thirdly fear and anger, and the opposite affections; and if they conquered these, they would live righteously, but if they were conquered by them, unrighteously. (Plato Temaeus p.20)

To attain knowledge a soul must possess the philosophical impulse (eros) and be willing to make the necessary intellectual effort (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.252)

From Plato, Arterioles takes the theory that the cosmos and its parts have the good as their ultimate aim, that the soul naturally rules over the body and reason naturally rules over the irrational parts of the soul, and that living creatures resemble artifacts with functional parts. (Plato On the soul Oxford p. XV)

This is the soul, source of change and motion in all things (if the soul is older than the body then is said to exist by nature. (Plato Laws p. 231)

1.1a Tragedy and comedy share the same words

Even at a comedy, the soul experiences a mixed feeling of pain and pleasure. (Plato Philebus p. 128)

Tragedy and comedy, not only on the stage but on the greater stage of human life. (Plato Philebus p. 132)

1.1b Virtue Divine

Virtue is not something in a man’s nature, nor instilled by teaching, but he who has it gets it by divine dispensation without intelligence. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.264)

1.2 Preservation

1.2a Memory

Memory attracts us towards the object of desire, which proves also that impulses and the desire and the moving principle in every living being have their origin in the soul (Plato Phaedrus p. 107)

1.2b Desire

When a man is empty he desires to be full and has pleasure in hope and pain in vacuity. (Plato Philebus p. 127)

there are two natures, one self-existent (essence absolutes), and the other ever in want of something (relatives generation). (Plato Philebus p. 136)

1.2c Pleasure

Pleasure is the mean, the measure, and the suitable and the like of the mind. (Plato Philebus p/ 155)

1.3 Block of wax

There exists in the mind of man a block of wax, which is of different sizes in different men; harder, moister, and having more or less of purity in one than another, and in some of the intermediate quality. This tablet is a gift of Memory, the mother of the Muses. It molds what we remember, but it disappears when we forget (Plato Theatetus p.2255)

1.3a Consciousness

1.3a 1 Mind & true opinion

If the mind and true opinion are one then everything that we perceive through the body is to be regarded as most real and certain. However, one is implemented in us by the institution, the other by persuasion. (Plato Temaeus p. 59)

 

1.3a 2 To acquire knowledge (birds head)

In the mind, if each man there is an aviary of all sorts of birds-some flocking together others apart from the rest, others in small groups, others solitary, flying anywhere and everywhere. We may suppose that the birds are kinds of knowledge, and when we were children, this receptacle was empty, whenever a man has gotten and detained in the enclosure a kind of knowledge, he may be said to have learned or discovered the thing which is the subject of the knowledge: and that is to know. (We can catch ignorant birds too) (Plato - Theatetus p.2394)

1.3a 3 Falshood in mind

Seeing that language is true and false, and that thought is the conversation of the soul with herself, and opinion is the end of thinking, and imagination or fantasy is the union of sense and opinion, the inference is that some of them since they are akin to language, should have an element of falsehood as well as of truth. (Plato Sophists p. 154)

What is spoken of the unchanging or intelligible must be certain and true, but what is spoken of the created image can only be probable; being is to becoming what truth is to belief. (Plato Temeaus p.7)

1.3a 4 Existence

Is there any self-existent fire? And do all those things which we call self-existent exist? Or are only those things which we see, or in some way perceive through the bodily organs, truly existent, and nothing whatever besides them? And is all that which we call an intelligible essence nothing at all, and only a name? (Plato Temaeus p. 58)

1.3a 5 To perfect intelligence 

When reason is in the neighborhood of sense, and the circle of the other or diverse is moving truly, then arise true opinion and beliefs; when reason is in the spare of thought, and the circle of the same runs smoothly, then intelligence is perfected. (Plato Temaues p.12)

1.3a 6 Consciousness preserved by memory

The union or communion of soul and body in one feeling and motion would be properly called consciousness. And memory is the preservation of consciousness. (Plato Philebus p. 104)

Plato’s doctrine was that forms and mathematical are two substances and that the third substance is that of perceptible bodies. (Aristotle Metaphysics Penguin p. 171)

1.3a 7 He who knows nothing knows all

He is the wisest of you who, like Socrates, realizes that he has no wisdom worth the name” (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.81)

Socrates' mission: Not to teach people what they know already, but to make them consciously aware of what they did not know. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.295)

The orator, they conclude, thought himself ignorant of a subject, is more persuasive than the expert when speaking before ignorant people. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.286)

The degrees of knowledge correspond in clarity to the degrees of reality in their objects (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.256)

The right opinion implies the perception of differences and knowledge is the right opinion with knowledge of difference, so you know what you do not know. (Plato - Theatetus p.2597) 

Every man seems to know all things in a dreamy sort of way, and then to wake up and know nothing. (Plato Statesmen p. 1011)

1.3a 8 The evil ignorance of a philosopher

These philosophers are neither the wise nor those so unwise as to be evil. They possess this evil, ignorance, but are not rendered so foolish by it as to think they know what they do not. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.141)

1.3a 9 Two kinds of persuasion

Two kinds of persuasion, one (teaching) imparting knowledge, the other (rhetoric) belief without knowledge.( A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.286)

1.3a 10 Two kinds of knowledge

Of all knowledge, there are two divisions - one which rules, and the other which judges. ( Plato Statesmen p. 700)

1.3a 11 The reflection before action

It has always been my practice to act only on the argument that, after reflection, seems to me best. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.95)

It is not number but the knowledge that should decide the issue (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.127)

1.3a 12 How to be courageous

Courage is knowledge of what is and what is not fearful. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.228)

1.3a 13 Evil

It is better to suffer evil than to do it. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.90)

Believed there were experts in right and wrong conduct; That was what ‘virtue is knowledge’ meant, it explained his distrust of democracy (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.98)

We are friends of the good on account of evil (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.142)

In a world without evil would there be no more hunger and thirst, or would they exist but no be harmful? (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.142)

Two types of evil - The fear of expected evil and the fear of an evil reputation. To make any one fearless, we and the law bring him face to face with many fears. (Plato Laws 114)

1.3b Moral ideas

Moral ideas come first when we are children, through the medium of education, from parents and teachers, assisted by the unconscious influence of language, they are impressed upon a mind which at first is like a waxen tablet, adapted to receive them, but they soon become fixed or set, and then when grown it is strengthened or weakened by the force of public opinion, they may be corrected and enlarged by experience, they may be reasoned about, they may be brought home to us by the circumstances of lives, they may be intensified by imagination, by reflection, by a cause of action likely to confirm them. (Plato Philebus p. 40)

1.3b 1 Tears are the origin of love and hate

For kids, tears and cries are the inauspicious signs by which they show what they love and hate. (Plato Laws p. 182)

1.4 Cave Analogy

Visible with Conjecture (shadow Images) and conviction (The representation of the objects) and Intelligible with thoughtfulness (From Hyptisis to conclusion directly) and intelligence (Non-Hypotisis. First principle)

Structure (Plato The Republic p. 237)

1.4 a The Cave Analogy Fragment

Since this is one of the most important fragments of philosophy in my view, I copied in full length:

'Next', I said, 'think of our nature in relation to education, and the lack of it, in terms of the following image. Imagine human beings as if they were in a cave-like dwelling underground, with a broad opening to the daylight across the whole width of the cave. They have been there since childhood, chained not just by their legs but by their necks so that they can't move and can only look ahead of them - the neck-chain makes it impossible for them to turn their heads around. Light reaches them from a fire that burns way above and behind them; and in between the fire and the prisoners, high above, there is a path across the cave, beside which you need to imagine a little wall, built like those screens puppeteers have in front of their audience so that they can show their puppets

above them.'

'Done,' he said.

'Next, along this little wall, imagine people carrying a whole collection of manufactured objects that stick up above it, including human statues and representations of other kinds of creatures fashioned out of wood and stone and all sorts of other things; as you'd expect, some of the carriers are speaking, others are silent.'

'A strange picture', he said, '- and strange prisoners!'

'Ones that resemble us,' I said, 'since first of all do you think people in that condition will have seen anything of themselves or-of each other except for their shadows, cast by the fire onto the surface of the cave in front of them?'

'How could they,' he asked, 'if they were prevented from moving their heads even once in their whole lives?'

'And what about the things being carried along the wall? Won't it be the same with them?'

'Of course.'

'So if the prisoners were able to have conversations with each other, don't you think they'd label whatever they were seeing in front of them as what those things actually are?

'They'd have to.'

'And what if the prison gave off an echo from in front of them? Whenever any of those passing along the wall behind them said something, do you think the prisoners could suppose it came from anywhere except the shadow passing before them?'

'Zeus!' he exclaimed. 'I don't see how they could.'

'So from every point of view, I said, 'what people in that

the situation would think of as the truth would be nothing but the

shadows of the manufactured objects behind the,

'They couldn't avoid doing so.'

'Now think what it might be like. for them to be released from their chams and cured of their mindless Suppose

something like this really happened: one of them was set free and was suddenly forced to stand up twist his neck round then try to walk, and oo towards the source of the light. Given that he would be in pain as he did all this, and unable because of the glare to see the actual things that cast the shadows he used to see, what do you think he'd say if someone told him that what he saw before wasn't worth seeing anyway, and that he was seeing better now because he was that much closer to the truth of things, and turned towards things that more truly are - and then, to add insult to injury, pointed to each of the things passing by along the wall and forced him by

question-and-answer to say what each of them was? Wouldn't you expect him to be at a loss, and to suppose what he used to see to be truer than the things now being pointed out to him?'

'Yes, much truer,' he said.

'And if this other person then also made him look towards the source of the light itself, don't you suppose his eyes would hurt, and he'd turn round and try to bolt back in the direction of the things he could see, thinking these really and truly clearer than what was being shown to him?'

'Just so,' he said.

'What then if someone took hold of him', I said, 'and dragged him bodily up from there, no matter how rough and

steep the slope, until finally, he emerged into the light of the sun? Don't you suppose he'd be suffering and complaining as he was dragged along and that when he came into the 1· ht h ·

eyes would be filled with_ its beams, and he wouldn't be able to see a single one of the things now called true?'

'No, he wouldn't, not Immediately,' he said.

'He'd need time to adjust, I imagine, before he could see things up there. First of all, he'd find it easiest to see shadows; next, it would be reflections of human beings and everything else in the water, then the things themselves; and from these he'd move on to the heavenly bodies and the heaven themselves, though he'd start by looking at them at night, gazing at the light of the stars and the moon, because that would be easier than looking at the sun and the sun's light by day.'

'Of course.'

'Then finally, I imagine, he'd be able to catch sight of the sun, not just reflected in water, or as it appears in an alien location, but the sun itself, by itself, in its own place, and observe it as it is.'

'Inevitably,' he said.

'And after all of this, he would be able to reason to himself that it was this that not only provided the yearly cycle of the seasons and oversaw everything in the region of the seen but was also in a certain way the cause of those other things he and the other prisoners used to see.'

'Plainly,' he said, 'that is the conclusion he'd come to.'

'And as he remembered the place he lived in first, what counted as wisdom there, and his former fellow-prisoners,

don't you think he would call himself happy for his change of residence, and pity the others?'

'Indeed he would.'

'As for any honors and praises they heaped on each other, with prizes for the one who had the sharpest eye for the things passing in front of them, and could remember best which objects tended to come along earlier, or later, or together, so that he could predict on that basis which was going to come along next - do you think our man would miss these rewards, and envy anyone honored by the prisoners or holding princely power among them, or would he rather react, as Homer describes it, by much preferring to "work the fields above for

someone else,/ A serf to a man with nothing", or endure any fate rather than believe as they do and live like them?'

'I think the latter,' he said; 'he'd accept any fate rather than live like that.'

Cave analogy (Plato the republic p.239-240) 

1.4 b The use of the analogy

Interest in these “forms” was ethical, to reform conduct (...) moral forms: justice, piety, courage, and the like. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.116)

1.4 c The process of understanding

Plato does not deny the existence of objects of sense, but according to him they only receive their true meaning when they are incorporated in a principle that is above them. Moder (First - experience / Last - Nature and reasoning) (Plato Sophists p.44)

2 Humans are not self-sufficient

Cities come into existence because in fact none of us is self-sufficient. (Plato - The Republic Penguin p.58)

2 City

creating a city by ‘needs’:

1 - provision of food 

2- need of housing 

3 - need of closing (Plato The Republic Penguin p.58)  

Thousands of cities have come into being and have passed away again. (Plato Laws p. 22)

2.1 The ruler should be a philosopher

The timetable of a philosopher ruler 

1- Study of dialectic 

2- Experience minor government roles

3- lift the eye of the soul, to then order the city and themselves (Plato - The Republic Penguin p.XXXV)

-Guards need education 

-Tell only the finest stories (Plato The Republic Penguin p.70)

Then again we know that the masses are not our masters and that they are more likely to become so if we educate them. In modern politics so many interests have to be consulted that we are compelled to do, not what is best, but what is possible. (Plato - Statesman p.554)

In political art error is not called disease but evil, or disgrace, or injustice. (Plato - Statesman p. 1364)

Guardians of the law (Republic) now are substituted to a special body, who are to review and amend the laws. (Plato Laws 89)

Victory produces forgetfulness of education. (Plato Laws p. 109)

2.2 Political Individual

What would happen if everyone would behave like me?

What would happen if everyone would behave like me? (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.101)

2.2 a Principles

Order of importance

State, soul, body, money. (Plato Laws p. 141)

The ideal may not be carried out, and yet maybe a guiding principle. (Plato Laws p. 9)

Life, in simple words, should be lived according to certain fixed principles. To live in that way, one must understand fully what those principles are. (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.234)

Natural and the best thing, for females to share all the functions in the city, and also the same education, as the males (Plato - The Republic Penguin p.XXXii)

Just life is the nurse of old age (Plato - The Republic Penguin p.7)

The world is not made to you but you to the world. (Plato Laws p. 72)

2.3 What governs?

Any form of government which is defined by these characteristics of the one, the few, or the many, of poverty or wealth, of voluntary or compulsory submission, of handwritten law or the absence of law, can be a right one? The distinguishing principle has to be the notion of science not the many , or the others. (Plato the statesman p.1290)

A mixture of democracy and monarchy. All who are serving, or have served in the army will be electors. 300 with the most votes will be selected again to be voted 100 - 37. The final 37 should be guardians of the law, secondly of the registers of property. (Plato Laws p. 38)

The government of the many is in every respect weak and unable to do either great good or any great evil because the offices are too minutely subdivided and too many hold them. (Plato The Statesman p. 1479)

2.4 Law

For one the principal advantage of Law is not merely that it enforces honesty, but that it makes men act in the same way, and requires them to produce the same evidence of their acts. (Plato - The Sophists p. 560)

A comprehension of never existing a perfect law: A perfectly simple principle can never be applied to a state of thing which is the reverse of simple. (Plato The statesman p. 1322)

All law has to do with pleasure and pain; these are to fountains which are ever flowing in human nature, and he who drinks of them when and as much as he ought, is happy, and he who indulges in them to excess, is miserable. (Plato Laws p. 16)

No money is going to lend, the law will not protect a man in recovering either interest or principal. The aim of this legislation is not to make the city rich and mighty, but the best and happiest. (Plato Laws p. 37)

2.5 Marriage

To marry someone you ought to consult the interests of the state rather than your own pleasure. (Plato Laws p. 42)

2.6 Love

She has shown Socrates the way out of black and white, Socrates asked: how can love not be beautiful and ugly? Diotima “Love falls between wise and ignorant, beautiful and ignorant, and that Love is one of them. Wisdom is one of the most beautiful things, and love is a love of beauty. So love must necessarily be a lover of wisdom, and as a lover of wisdom, he falls between wisdom and ignorance. (Love ‘intermediate’ state and one type of search to satisfy a need, namely the search for wisdom, or something you don’t have. The result of this intermediate “happiness”. (Plato Symposium p. 37)

Socrates has shown how one should speak to a loved one, not spoiling him but teaching him humility (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.137)

Neither similar nor opposites can be friends to each other (A History of Greek Philosophy v4 W. K. C. Guthrie p.137)

2.7 Kids

Kids belong to the state more than to the parents. (Plato Laws p. 46)

3 years old 

- The infant should be as free as possible from fear and pain. 

- The influence of pleasure at the beginning of education is fatal.

- A pregnant woman should be carefully tended and kept from excessive pleasures and pain. 

3-6 years old

Minds have to be amused/ not self-willed and spoiled.

Punishment: neither in hot blood nor ruined by indulgence.

-Play with the care of nurses chosen by the mother. 

6 years old 

- Separation of the sexes.

- Boys will learn riding and the use of arms, and the girls, may

if they please also learn. (All learn left and right hand) 

(Plato Laws p. 45)

16 years old

Learn music and study the dialogues of Plato. 

(Plato Laws p. 48)

Education two branches - gymnastic-body and music-soul  (Plato Laws p.46)

2.8 Money

The citizens will not tolerate a settlement in which they are deprived of gold and silver, and have the number of their families regulated, and the sites of their houses fixed by law. It will be said that our city is a mere image of wax. And the legislator will answer “ I know it, but I maintain that we ought to set forth an ideal which is as perfect as possible”. (Plato Laws 37)

To appreciate the benefits of such an institution a man requires to be well educated; for he certainly will not make a fortune in our state. (Plato Laws p. 37)

Coins current only national - No gold for ind. (Plato Laws p. 161)

2.9 Single Functions

In this city, every individual should be restricted to the single function to which he is best suited. (Plato - The Republic Penguin p.XXXi)

Less than 40 years old can’t travel abroad. (Plato Laws p. 256)

2.10 Habitants 5040

5040 habitants limit in the city. (Plato Laws p. 36)

2.11 Poetry

Why poetry is bad? Because it focused our minds on the appearance of things rather then their reality (Plato - The Republic Penguin p.XXXVi)Poets are not always quite capable of knowing what is good and evil, and if one of them utters a mistaken prayer in a song or words, he will make our citizens pray for the opposite of what is good in matters of the highest import. Regulate poets. (Plato Laws p. 187)